Almost four years after the adoption of the pay transparency law in the country, Germany’s Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht) issued a landmark ruling on 21 January on equal treatment of men and women (8 AZR 488/19). If a woman earns less than her male colleagues in a comparable role, it is presumed that she is being discriminated against on the basis of her sex. It is then up to the employer to prove the contrary and to provide objective reasons for the pay gap observed.